This piece of leather is called a heel counter. The padded area of the insole of a shoe, which is designed to support the arch of the foot.
Beeswax and carnauba wax are the most commonly used waxes in shoe polish, with paraffin wax being used less often. However, I believe Venetian shoe cream is composed of a liquid paraffin mixed with turpentine. All hydrocarbons from paraffin wax to mineral oil fall into the paraffin class. Kiwi lists carnauba wax as the wax ingredient in their standard paste polish.
Melting Point F , source leaves of the palm plant Copernicia prunifera grown in Brazil. Melting Point F , source candelilla shrub found in Southwest U.
Melting Point F , source honey bees. Melting Point F , source petroleum distillate — paraffin class hydrocarbon. When it comes to leather shoes it is helpful to have an understanding of leather in general, and shoe leather in specific. Most people think of leather as cow hide, but it really relates to any animal skin that has been through the tanning process to convert the dead animal skin into a lasting useful material Leather.
Although the tanned skin of a young calf is called calfskin it is still leather. Because calfskin comes from a calf it has a tighter grain and fiber, and is thinner and lighter than cow hide; this makes for better shoe leather. There are also bird skins, like ostrich, and reptile skins like alligator, crocodile, lizard and snake.
Reptile skins tend to last longer and need less care than animal leathers, but they are also more expensive. A high quality all leather shoe uses leather in the following places: The outsole of the shoe the part that touches the ground The insole of the shoe the part your foot rests on The lining of the shoe between your foot and the upper The heel of the shoe as in stacked layers of leather to create the heel The shoe upper the rest of the shoe, excluding the items above.
Shoe that are not all leather may have rubber soles, insoles made of various materials, and heels made of wood, rubber or plastic. I would suggest going with all leather if you can, with the exception of perhaps rubber soles if you need to stand in cold wet environments. Leather can be available from tanneries in the following thicknesses: A leather insole is typically around 14oz in thickness to accommodate the welt.
All of these thicknesses can vary due to leather type, welt method, and shoe style. For example Italian shoes tend to be sleeker and therefore use thinner leather in the soles and uppers to achieve the look. As a side note: The quality of the leather used in a given line of shoes is determined by the grade of leather the shoe manufacturer purchased to make the shoes. Leather is graded in two basic ways: Leather quality is typically graded in four grades, with grade 1 being the best, and grade 4 being the worst.
This means that even grade 1 hides little to no blemishes have grade 4 leather belly skin. The grade of leather used is the most critical in the shoe upper, as this is where the quality of the leather is most visible. Shoe uppers made from the back area leather of a grade 1 hide would be the best shoe leather you could get and also makes for a very expensive pair of shoes. The leather on a shoe upper is typically grain side out leather, but leathers like shell cordovan and waxed leather are used inside out flesh side out , and suede leather has had the grain removed entirely.
Inside out leathers are typically pressed under very high pressure to compress the fibers to a smooth surface. Leather that has blemishes in the grain are often buffed sanded of the grain side to remove the blemishes, which then requires the grain to be corrected. Corrected grain leather is sometimes referred to as top grain leather or bookbinder leather. If the grain has not been corrected no existing blemishes in the grain to begin with it is referred to as full grain.
The term top grain has also been used to define the grain side of the leather, making full grain and top grain synonymous, so it can be confusing. The high quality leather is typically aniline dyed, which saturates the color completely through the leather. The leather is also pressed under high pressure to give it some shine, and a very thin coat of clear or colored acrylic is applied as a final finish, in most cases. In the case of corrected grain, the pressing and acrylic finish is also where the corrected grain is applied.
Because of this corrected grain leather will have a thicker finish than non-corrected grain, and also tend to be a little shinier. Patent leather is corrected grain leather with a thick acrylic finish, pressed to a high shine. The shoe manufacturer may also add their own finish to the leather, to add more shine, or to add color highlights.
This blog is intended to address an international audience. Therefore, I believe it is important to identify some English language terminologies that differ between the US and the UK.
Because Europeans were dressing for formal events and business long before there was a United States, a number of terms in shoes and clothing have a European heritage. Since this article is more about English language terminologies I will stick with general terminology differences between the US and the UK, rather than Europe as a whole. Most terms were coined for various objects through relationships to the designer, manufacturer, or location of introduction.
It should also be noted that a lot of the differences in terminology are basically due to lack of adherence to or awareness of historical terminologies, by the US population, and some of the manufacturers.
Some of it was born out of simple ignorance of the times, and other aspects are simply cultural. This is not a judgment, just an observation. In the UK a Derby is a Blucher style shoe. It is all a bit confusing. In regard to the UK term of Bowler: The name of the hat makers that first built the hat were Thomas and William Bowler The hat was commissioned by Edward Coke. But, I would refer to a Bowler as a Bowler most everywhere. Finding common ground for some terms is not quite as easy, as they are embedded in the culture.
While in the US a cap toe oxford would almost always be called a dress shoe. The padded area of the insole of a shoe, which is designed to support the arch of the foot. The vertical seam used to attach the quarters together at the center of the rear of a shoe.
A short strip of leather that connects the quarters down the back of the shoe. A stiff piece of material usually made of leather, plastic, cardboard, or other stiff but plyable material that is inserted between the shoe lining and the upper located at the rear of the shoe, just above the heel. The counter is used to strengthen the rear of the shoe and support the rear heel of the foot. It also helps retain the shape of the shoe.
A Heel Counter can also refer to the exterior decoration on the back of a shoe similar to a toe cap Eyelets: Holes in the upper, above the tongue, where shoe laces are laces. Eyelets may be reinforced with a grommet for less wear on the shoe material. The plastic tips on shoe strings are called Aglets. The part of the shoe where the shoelace eyelets are located.
A piece of leather trimming fitted into or on top of the rear quarters. An elastic panel attached to each side of the vamp to make a shoe more comfortable and easier to put on and take off. A Hidden Gore is covered by the tongue of a shoe and provides added comfort. The heel of a shoe, which raises the rear of the shoe, is considered part of the sole of a shoe although is is normally an independent piece of material.
There are also names for the various areas of a heel: The area of the heel that faces the front of a shoe, typically located below the rear arch area of the foot.
The area of the heel that is attached to the sole of a shoe. Used to refer to the Top Piece of a narrow, high heeled shoe such as a Stiletto. Heel Tips are usually made of plastic or rubber. The area of the heel that contacts the ground. A hidden seam on a shoe attaching the welt, upper, lining and insole. The layer of material that lays on top of the sole inside a shoe, where the bottom of your foot contacts a shoe.
A material, usually leather, sheepskin or cloth, that covers the inside of the upper to make a shoe more comfortable. A layer of cushioned material between the innersole and outsole, adding additonal comfort and support to a shoe.
The part of the sole that touches the ground, usually made of leather or rubber. The sewn in vamp on a loafer. Usually defined as a plug if the material or texture is different than the rest of the shoe. Inspect articles for defects, and remove damaged or worn parts, using hand tools. Drill or punch holes and insert or attach metal rings, handles, and fastening hardware, such as buckles. Attach accessories or ornamentation to decorate or protect products. Cut, insert, position, and secure paddings, cushioning, or linings, using stitches or glue.
Draw patterns, using measurements, designs, plaster casts, or customer specifications, and position or outline patterns on work pieces. Measure customers for fit, and discuss with them the type of footwear to be made, recommending details such as leather quality. Stretch shoes, dampening parts and inserting and twisting parts, using an adjustable stretcher. Nail heel and toe cleats onto shoes. Prepare inserts, heel pads, and lifts from casts of customers' feet.
Re-sew seams, and replace handles and linings of suitcases or handbags. Finger Dexterity — The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects.
Manual Dexterity — The ability to quickly move your hand, your hand together with your arm, or your two hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects. Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range within a few feet of the observer. Arm-Hand Steadiness — The ability to keep your hand and arm steady while moving your arm or while holding your arm and hand in one position.
Control Precision — The ability to quickly and repeatedly adjust the controls of a machine or a vehicle to exact positions. Multilimb Coordination — The ability to coordinate two or more limbs for example, two arms, two legs, or one leg and one arm while sitting, standing, or lying down. It does not involve performing the activities while the whole body is in motion. Estimate costs of products, services, or materials. Trim excess material from workpieces. Assemble garments or textile products.
Attach decorative or functional accessories to products. Adjust fabrics or other materials during garment production. Repair textiles or apparel. Construct customized assistive medical or dental devices. Sew clothing or other articles. Align parts or workpieces to ensure proper assembly.
Mount materials or workpieces onto production equipment. Prepare fabrics or materials for processing or production. Apply water or solutions to fabrics or apparel.
Evaluate quality of materials or products. Polish materials, workpieces, or finished products. Measure clients to ensure proper product fit. Inspect garments for defects, damage, or stains. Read work orders or other instructions to determine product specifications or materials requirements. Drill holes in parts, equipment, or materials. Draw guide lines or markings on materials or workpieces using patterns or other references. Select production input materials. Design templates or patterns. Position patterns on equipment, materials, or workpieces.
Confer with customers or designers to determine order specifications. Some Preparation Needed Education These occupations usually require a high school diploma. Related Experience Some previous work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is usually needed.
For example, a teller would benefit from experience working directly with the public. Job Training Employees in these occupations need anywhere from a few months to one year of working with experienced employees. A recognized apprenticeship program may be associated with these occupations. Job Zone Examples These occupations often involve using your knowledge and skills to help others.
Examples include orderlies, forest firefighters, customer service representatives, security guards, upholsterers, and tellers.
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